Methods of Harnessing Energy What is Geothermal Energy?
Methods of Harnessing Energy What is Geothermal Energy?
Geothermal is derived of the Greek words geo (meaning earth) and therein (meaning heat). Convective circulation plays a crucial function in bringing warmth to the surface from heated interior of the Earth.
The crust of our planet is the consequence of millions of volcanoes that are active and huge amounts of magma, and a lot of cooling beneath the surface. The enduring and widespread volcanic activity has resulted in the creation of many precious natural resources across the globe.
Geothermal Energy from power plants are extracted by groundwater heated by massive, hot magma bodies. Get energy from Brantley 1994 Volcanoes in the United States. USGS General Interest Publication.
The deep circulation of groundwater around fracture zones can help bring heat down to shallower levels. This heat can be gathered from a wide area , and then concentrated in close to the storage tanks on the surface, or discharged in hot springs. These reservoirs can contain hot water or a stream.
The hot water in these reservoirs or steam can be directly pumped to the surface. The low-energy waste water is frequently reinjected into the storage tank , or used for heating purposes. This technique can be utilized to generate electricity as well as heat for home and industrial use.
The reliability, economy sustainability, and renewable nature of geothermal power have been proven (World Bank Group 2004).
There are two primary kinds of resources: (1) high temperature resources and (2) moderate/low temperatures resources. Geothermal resources with high temperatures, which can reach temperatures as high as 220 degrees Celsius or higher typically, are located in volcanic regions and island chains.
All continents have moderate-low temperature resources. High temperatures are nearly exclusively for power generation however, the majority of the resources with low temperatures are used to heat direct or for aquaculture and agriculture.
What is the process behind Harnessing Geothermal Energy function?
Presently, there are three kinds of geothermal power plants in operation.
Steam power plants that use direct geothermal steam. The steam power plant that are dry make use of extreme heated steam (>455 degrees Fahrenheit or more than 235 degrees Celsius) and extremely little reservoir water. The steam is pumped directly through a pipe and is sent to a turbine that spins a generator to generate electricity. It is the earliest type of geothermal power station. It first was used in 1904 in Lardarello, Italy. Geysers located in North California are one example of dry steam production (Green Jobs 2002).
Flash Steam Plants use high pressure hot water to create steam when the temperature is low. Steam power plant flashes make use of hot water from the geothermal reservoir at temperatures of greater than 360degF or >182degC. The reservoir’s pressure will be released once the reservoir is transferred to an electric generator.
A sudden drop in pressure can cause some water to evaporate into steam. This steam spins a turbine which produces electricity. Dry steam and flash steam produce very little carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, as well as nitric Ox. This is however 50 % less than conventional fossil fuel power plants.
Binary Cycle Plants use water at moderate temperatures (225 to 360degFor 107 up to 182degC) from the geothermal reserve. Hot geothermal fluids get heated by moving through one end of the exchanger.
To generate electricity The fluid that is used to generate electricity is typically an organic compound that has low boiling points such as Isobutane and Isopentane. Then, it is vaporized and passed through turbines.
The Kalina Cycle utilizes an ammonia-water fluid as a working fluid. As per Green Jobs 2002, the Kalina Cycle system increases geothermal plant efficiency and lowers construction costs. According to the makers.
The geothermal energy station which is shown here is located in Casa Diablo’s geothermal field. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.
Geothermal Energy: Applications
- Space/District Heating - Plans that use geothermal heat to provide more than the 80% of Reykjavik’s heating requirements are used in many other towns in the USA, Poland, and Hungary. A plan to make use of hot water from oil wells in Poland to replace district heating based on coal is being supported by the World Bank (World Bank Group 2004).
- Aquaculture and Agriculture - Plants, soils, and fish ponds with geothermal activity can increase the growth of fish and plants even in moderate temperatures and cooler climates. One example that has been successful could be that of the Oserian farm located which is located in Kenya (World Flowers 2005).
- Power Generation Geothermal power generation has a capacity of over 8000 MW and is an established technology. It is especially well-known in islands or countries which heavily rely on fossil fuels imported from abroad (World Bank Group , 2004).
Geothermal Energy Costs
The cost of geothermal energy generated amounts to 4.5-7 cents/hour. Although this is similar to other fossil fuel sources, however, it should be noted that geothermal electricity generation has significant reductions in pollution.
The size of the project, its quality, costs of financing and ownership will all affect the costs of the project.
Geothermal energy plants need a lot of capital, but have low variable costs and minimal fuel costs.
The financing structure is generally to ensure that the initial costs of the project will be due within 15 years. It provides power at 5-10C/kWh.
The cost of running the facility over fifteen to thirty years are covered by operations and maintenance.
Geothermal Energy can also bring other benefits
- The air pollution could be lessen The current geothermal fields emit approximately one-sixth of the amount of carbon dioxide as an electricity-generating gas power station, and they emit no NOx or sulphur. (NOx) or sulfur (SOx).
The state of the art combination cycle as well as geothermal binary plant produce virtually no air pollutants. Each 1,000 MW of geothermal energy will neutralize around 1.9 million pounds harmful as well as harmful pollution that is a threat to Western skies.
It will also offset nearly 8 trillion pounds climate change Emissions of co2 per year from fired gas power plants and much more from coal-fired power plants.
- Source of renewable energy: All forms of geothermal heat are renewable in the event that the heat exchangers extracted from the earth do not more than the heat that is absorbed into the thermo reservoir. Once it has been depleted, a geothermal reservoir used for electricity generation can take hundreds of years to replenish.
Recovering the district heating system reservoir could take anywhere between 100 and 200 years. The recovery of the reservoir of a geothermal heat pump may take 30 years.
- Reduce the dependence on imported electricity Geothermal energy is produced locally, which reduces trade deficits. It is possible to have trade deficits cut to keep wealth in the country and promote more healthy economies. If imported oil was substituted by domestic resources, almost half of the annual U.S. trade deficit could be reduced (Green Jobs 2004).
Geothermal energy is a proven wave energy source that has been around for more than 100 years. But, it’s only now that we realize that it is a potential source of energy to complement and replace the existing renewable energy resources.
The United States has the majority of geothermal energy resources within the western region, including regions and regions. Geothermal energy is effective cost-effective, safe, and clean but its limited use is its biggest flaw. Geothermal energy represents only one-third of solar power dispersed on the earth’s surface, in comparison to other options like solar. There is room for improvement.
While geothermal energy units can be extended, their processes and techniques have remained unchanged. We must also think about the potential benefits for alternative sources of energy as we search for them.
Five ways to harness the source of energy renewable Human power
Wind-up phone charger
Mobile phone users who have a habit of staying connected should not be too far away from the power source, or feel the fear of their battery going out. This “Reactor” iPhone case is equipped with an ultra-thin generator. It lets you manually charge your battery through the control that’s connected to its back. Although this method of power generation might not be revolutionary, it sheds light on the possibility that human-power could be utilized to provide the power needed for emergencies and is available in times of need.
Light powered by gravity
Designing a human-powered product can be difficult since it requires less effort to produce power. Gravity Light solves this problem by using the power of gravity. To lift the sandbag weight only requires one blast of energy. The weight slowly drops until it can turn a spur gear system that powers the LED light for 20 minutes.
Parasitic harvesting refers to the process of generating wind power from normal activities such as walking. The NPowerPEG is a tube-shaped hand-held device that is able to be attached onto your backpack or belt. It generates electricity from movement by using a spring, magnet, or inductive coil. Even though it’s not enough energy to run powerful electronics such as laptops and tablets The concept is excellent performance in terms of energy and batteries.
Flywheel kitchen gadgets
Modern human-powered devices do not rely only on the creation of electricity. Christoph Thetard’s mechanical flywheel drive RB2B powers a range of kitchen appliances. The flywheel can spin at 10,000 RPM through an engineered transmission and a mechanical power that is 350 W. The power of the wave can be used to power various attachments like knives, slicing disks and whisk. Although it’s not clear what practicality this device has but the inventor deserves credit for creating a concept that challenges conventional notions that gadgets powered by humans have to be lightweight and powered by batteries.